Research Articles (continued)


  1. The Provision of an EMDR-Based Multicomponent Trauma Treatment With Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Trauma. Ignacio, Jarero; Susana, Roque-L; Julio, Gomez, Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (ISSN: 1933-3196); Volume 7, No. 1, pp. 17-28(12); 20130201.Springer Publishing Company.

    Abstract: This study evaluated a multicomponent phase?based trauma treatment approach for 34 children who were victims of severe interpersonal trauma (e.g., rape, sexual abuse, physical and emotional violence, neglect, abandonment). the children attended a week-long residential psychological recovery camp, which provided resource building experiences, the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing integrative group treatment protocol (emdr-igtp), and one-on-one emdr intervention for the resolution of traumatic memories. the individual emdr sessions were provided for 26 children who still had some distress about their targeted memory following the emdr-igtp. results showed significant improvement for all the participants on the child's reaction to traumatic events scale (crtes) and the short ptsd rating interview (sprint), with treatment results maintained at follow-up. more research is needed to assess the emdr-igtp and the one-on-one emdr intervention effects as part of a multimodal approach with children who have suffered severe interpersonal trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (ISSN: 1933-3196); Volume 5, No. 3, pp. 82-94(13); 20110801.click here

  2. Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: Treatment outcome and gender differences. Aduriz, M. E., Bluthgen, C., & Knopfler, C. (2009, May). International Journal of Stress Management, 16(2), 138-153. doi:10.1037/a0014719.

    Abstract: A comprehensive group intervention with 124 children who experienced disaster-related trauma during a massive flood in Santa Fe, Argentina, in 2003 is illustrated, utilizing a one-session group eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) protocol. A posttreatment session was done 3 months after the treatment intervention to evaluate results. Results of this one-session treatment procedure, utilizing the EMDR-Integrative Group Treatment Protocol, showed statistically significant reduction of symptoms immediately after the intervention. These statistically significant differences were sustained at posttreatment evaluation 3 months later, as measured by psychometric scales, and by clinical and behavioral observation. Data analysis also revealed significant gender differences. Despite methodological limitations, this study supports the efficacy of EMDR group treatment in the amelioration and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, providing an efficient, simple, and economic (in terms of time and resources) tool for disaster-related trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).click here

  3. EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: A postdisaster trauma intervention for children and adults. Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2006). Traumatology, 12(2), 121-129. doi:10.1177/1534765606294561.

    Abstract: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is recognized as an effective and efficient treatment for trauma-related issues. This article describes an integrated EMDR and group treatment for children and adults traumatized by natural disasters in several Latin American countries. This protocol combines the eight standard EMDR treatment phases with a group therapy model. The hypothesis is that the resulting hybrid offers more extensive reach than did the original EMDR model, which was intended for use with individuals, and takes treatment efficacy and efficiency well beyond that expected from traditional group process. To illustrate the application of the model, one formally measured field study and nine pilot projects are described. The promising results of this intervention suggest that EMDR is an effective means of providing treatment to large groups of people impacted by large-scale traumatic events (e.g., natural disasters). Controlled research is needed to clarify this issue. click here

  4. The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: EMDR group treatment for early intervention following critical incidents. Jarero, I., & Artigas, L. (2012). Revue Europeenne De Psychologie Appliquee/European Review of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 219-222. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2012.04.004.

    Abstract: Introduction: This paper presents an overview of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing - Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) that has been used since 1998 with both children and adults in its original format or with adaptations to meet the circumstances in numerous settings around the world for thousands of survivors of natural or man-made disasters and during ongoing geopolitical crisis. Method: The author's intention is to highlight and enlightened the reader of the existence of this protocol that combines the eight standard EMDR treatment phases with a group therapy model and an art therapy format and use the Butterfly Hug as a form of a self-administered bilateral stimulation, thus providing more extensive reach than the individual EMDR application. Conclusion: Randomize Controlled Trial Research is suggested to establish the efficacy of this intervention. click here

  5. The provision of an EMDR-based multicomponent trauma treatment with child victims of severe interpersonal trauma. Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., & Gomez, J. (2013). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(1), 17-28. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.17.

    Abstract: This study evaluated a multicomponent phase-based trauma treatment approach for 34 children who were victims of severe interpersonal trauma (e.g., rape, sexual abuse, physical and emotional violence, neglect, abandonment). the children attended a week-long residential psychological recovery camp, which provided resource building experiences, the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing integrative group treatment protocol (emdr-igtp), and one-on-one emdr intervention for the resolution of traumatic memories. the individual emdr sessions were provided for 26 children who still had some distress about their targeted memory following the emdr-igtp. results showed significant improvement for all the participants on the child's to traumatic events scale (crtes) and the short ptsd rating interview (sprint), with treatment results maintained at follow-up. more research is needed to assess the emdr-igtp and the one-on-one emdr intervention effects as part of a multimodal approach with children who have suffered severe interpersonal trauma. click here

  6. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experience. Francine Shapiro, PhD, Perm J 2014 Winter; 18(1):71-77.

    Abstract:
    Background: A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an empirically validated treatment for trauma, including such negative life experiences as commonly present in medical practice. The positive therapeutic outcomes rapidly achieved without homework or detailed description of the disturbing event offer the medical community an efficient treatment approach with a wide range of applications.
    Methods: All randomized studies and significant clinical reports related to EMDR therapy for treating the experiential basis of both psychological and somatic disorders are reviewed. Also reviewed are the recent studies evaluating the eye movement component of the therapy, which has been posited to contribute to the rapid improvement attributable to EMDR treatment.
    Results: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of EMDR therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Seven of 10 studies reported EMDR therapy to be more rapid and/or more effective than trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images, with an additional 8 reporting a variety of other memory effects. Numerous other evaluations document that EMDR therapy provides relief from a variety of somatic complaints.
    Conclusion: EMDR therapy provides physicians and other clinicians with an efficient approach to address psychological and physiologic symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. Clinicians should therefore evaluate patients for experiential contributors to clinical manifestations.click here

  7. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research: Special Issue Commemorating EMDR's 25th Anniversary by Highlighting EMDR Humanitarian Projects

    Abstract: As a result of a dramatic surge of community-wide traumatic events over the last years, we have seen an increase in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)-trained clinicians in the United States who want to volunteer as responders to their own or neighboring communities in the wake of disaster. This grassroots movement was followed by the Trauma Recovery/Humanitarian Assistance Program's (TR/HAP) development of an organizational structure for Trauma Recovery Networks (TRNs) to provide EMDR training and treatment in their own local, affected areas. The personal stories of disaster response interventions by TRNs in Fairfield County, Connecticut, and New York City in 2012-2013 are examples of two decades of HAP team "experiences along the way." Lessons learned from the inside out are shared to encourage other developing networks in the logistical, emotional, and spiritual preparation for community disaster work. With the unfolding of TR/HAP's development of a National Trauma Recovery Network, there is an opportunity to ensure efficient and effective disaster responses by properly trained and prepared local EMDR clinicians. TRN chapters and their teams continue to increase awareness in local communities of the healing possibilities of acute and longer term trauma symptoms through early intervention with EMDR treatment.

    Link to Springer Publishing Company to purchase the journal click here; Link to Springer Publishing Company, which allows people to register and receive a "PDF" copy of the entire issue for free click here

  8. Third Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence. Ignacio Jarero, Susana Roque-Lopez, Julio Gomez, Martha Givaudan, 2015

    Abstract:This study presents the results of the application of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol and Individual EMDR therapy Protocol, to a total of 16 children (2 boys and 14 girls), aged between 9 to 13 years old, who attended a trauma recovery camp. All had been victims of severe interpersonal violence. The 14 girls had been victims of physical violence and rape; some for long periods of time, even years, by family members or acquaintances. One of the girls, as young as 11 years old, contracted a sexually transmitted disease as a result of the rape; another girl, besides of being repeatedly raped by her political grandfather, was blamed by him, for the rape he perpetrated on the younger sister; arguing she was responsible for looking after her. Regarding the two boys, in addition of being victims of physical and emotional violence; one of them witnessed how his father and cousin raped a female cousin; and the other one witnessed the attempted suicide of his father. All children were living with their families, characterized by being dysfunctional (e.g., knife fights between parents). To analyze the effects of treatment, a General Linear Model was used. There were analyzed three measures (pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-up), obtained in the Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD) and the Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT) scores. The results showed a statistically significant effect of treatment in the between-subjects test for both the SUD and the SPRINT scores: (F [1,15] = 146.85, p < .000 and F [ 1,14 ] = 238.56 , p < .000, respectively. The statistical one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the effects of treatment in all groups participating in the trauma recovery camps from 2011 to 2013, showed that after EMDR Therapy, participants had no significant differences in the SPRINT scores, this results denotes that the EMDR therapy had similar beneficial effect for all participants. Further research on the application of Group and Individual EMDR Therapy, as part of a multicomponent phase-based treatment for children and adolescents victims of severe interpersonal violence is needed.

    Third Research Study on the Provision of the EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol with Child Victims of Severe Interpersonal Violence click here.

  9. Pilot Research Study on the Provision of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol With Female Cancer Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 9, Number 2, 2015, pp. 98-105(8), Jarero, Ignacio; Artigas, Lucina; Uribe, Susana; Garcia, Laura Evelyn; Cavazos, Maria Alicia; Givaudan, Martha, 2015

    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP) in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancer in adult women. EMDR-IGTP intensive therapy was administered for 3 consecutive days, twice daily, to 24 adult women diagnosed with different types of cancer (cervical, breast, colon, bladder, and skin) who had PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. The data was analyzed using factorial ANOVA with the effects of the EMDR-IGTP evaluated with the Short PTSD Rating Interview as dependent variable and group (two groups of patients: active phase and follow-up phase of cancer treatment) and time (four time points) as independent variables. Post hoc analyses were carried out. Results showed significant main effects for time and group. No significant interaction was found. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This pilot study suggests that intensive administration of the EMDR-IGTP can be a valuable support for cancer patients with PTSD symptoms related to their diagnosis and treatment. Further research with randomized controlled studies is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of EMDR-IGTP in this population.

    Link to Springer Publishing Company to purchase this study click here

  10. EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Technological Disaster Context. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 11/2015; 9(4):166-173. DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.9.4.166, Ignacio Jarero, Susana Uribe, Lucina Artigas, Martha Givaudan, 2015

    Abstract:This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI) in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the explosion in an explosives manufacturing factory north of Mexico City that killed 7 employees. The EMDR-PRECI was administered on 2 consecutive days to 25 survivors who had posttraumatic stress symptoms related to the critical incident. Participants’ mean score on the Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT) was 22, well above the clinical cutoff of 14. They were randomly assigned to immediate and waitlist/delayed treatment conditions and therapy was provided within 15 days of the explosion. Results showed significant main effects for the condition factor, F(1, 80) 5 67.04, p , .000. SPRINT scores were significantly different across time showing the effects of the EMDR therapy through time, F(3, 80) 5 150.69, p , .000. There was also a significant interaction effect, condition by time, F(2, 80) 5 55.45, p , .001. There were significant differences between the two treatment conditions at Time 2 (post-immediate treatment vs. post-waitlist/delayed), t(11) 5 210.08, p , .000. Treatment effects were maintained at 90-day follow-up. Results also showed an overall subjective improvement in the participants. This randomized controlled trial provides evidence for the efficacy of EMDR-PRECI in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms after a technological disaster.

    Link to view this study click here


  11. Early Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent Event and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. Cyril Tarquinio, PhD, Christine Rotonda , PhD, William A. Houlle, MPsych, Sebastien Montel, PhD, Jenny Ann Rydberg, MPsych, Laetitia Minary, PhD, Helene Dellucci, MPsych, Pascale Tarquinio , MPsych, Any Fayard & Francois Alla, PhD.

    Abstract:This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.

    Link to view this study click here


  12. EMDR Research Foundation: EMDR Therapy Annotated Research Bibliography (2016).

    EMDR Therapy Research Overview: 1989 - 2016. A partial list of citations of research on EMDR therapy and the adaptive information processing model. Adapted with permission from the EMDR Institute page: click here

    Link to view the bibliography click here


  13. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    Abstract:Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre–post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

    Link to view this study click here